Monday, April 25, 2011

Frank Asbill

Frank Asbill is THE most important character in recording the Eel River Valley’s history.
Much more has been added below, at the bottom of this post:

As I’ve said many times, the thing that I like most about this blog is that it has provided many of us with historical fact, and sometimes fiction, that we wouldn’t have had the opportunity to know without it. I was raised listening to the stories of the Old-Timers. Listening their stories was better than reading an adventure novel. It would be hard for many people to understand, but the Old-Timers that I knew were thankful for their ancestors that tamed the land for us. I have heard many stories of Indian treachery, cattle butchering, and theft. Some thought at the time that the Indian people Had to be eliminated. But, on the other hand I have heard stories about the people that tried, and indeed succeeded in saving the Indians from complete annihilation.

There were many stories of conflict in the settling of the west. The stories that were most prevalent were the stories of treachery of white on white. Many land, cattle, and lumber barons of the west were successful due to their treachery alone. The white on white treachery is the dead give-away that the butchery was not just racial, but greed. Or, possibly need, or desire to suceede. Maybe the grit in their gut was because of what some of the settlers had already been through on their trip to California. Remember, almost all Californians in the 1850’s and ‘60’s had migrated to California from another state or country. Many were hunted and killed on the plains of the west by Indians or thieves in their own wagon trains. One of my very own 3G Grandfathers and uncles disappeared on the trip to California. Death may have come from Indians, thieves, or something as simple as drowning while crossing a creek. Those that made it to California were as tough as nails and they were not about to back down from anything.

The following is about THE most important person in the Eel River drainage history story, Frank Asbill. Say what you will, any many did. He recorded the history of our Valley, without the historical leads that he gave us, we wouldn’t have known where to look. Many dispute his history as hyperbole, but his was the nature of most folks in the early days of the Eel Valley. The Old-timers put on a tough front. They had to be tough enough to scare you away, or fight you, if the case may be. A person didn’t dare appear weak, because the law wouldn’t protect you. Usually “the law” was in the pocket of one of the thug barons. The Eel valley is greatly indebted to Frank Asbill.

Recently Asbill’s niece contacted me to start a dialog about his history. She gave me permission to start a post. Our correspondence is the following:

Hi Ernie,
    I happened upon your website after doing a search on the name of my great-uncle, Frank Asbill. I saw all the posts on your site talking about the murder of Hattie Maud Maher by Frank Asbill and knew I had to email you.. I couldnt figure out how to post on the site or would have done so.
     Anyway, Frank Asbill was my dad's uncle. My dad's mother was Irma Asbill, daughter of Pierce Asbill and Kate Robertson.
     I remember as a child hearing my dad talk about Uncle Frank going to prison for murder. It was something he didnt talk about much, and when he did, he always said it like it was a secret. My dad described Frank as a cowboy, who always wore a cowboy hat and carried a gun. My mother said Frank was a real womanizer, who often lived off women he met. My dad also said Maud Maher was married to a wealthy guy and they had a house in Oakland, but she left him for Frank.
     I know alot about the Asbill history, even though I was born too late to have ever met Frank or my grandmother, Irma. I was born in 1962 in Oakland. My dad was 50 years when I was born, so most of the people from his childhood had already passed away by that time, including both Frank and Irma. I did meet Sybil, Frank and Irma's younger sister, on several occassions.
     My dad grew up in Oakland, in the apartment building that Katie Robertson Asbill Cox Young (she was a busy lady:) bought after she called it quits in the mountains and moved to the city with her daughters. The whole family lived in the apartment building in Oakland..Kate, her daughters Irma and Sybil, their husbands, Alex Kane (my grandfather) and Carl Spiken (Sybils husband).
     I spent alot of years researching the family history. I have a copy of Franks manuscript, Last of the West. I have a copy of a large map that Frank drew showing the spots where signicficant historic events took place, the trail Pierce took over the mountains to Red Bluff in 1856, etc... I also have copies of Franks prison records from San Quentin prison, with his mug shot, the transcript of the court hearing, letters from people in favor of his parole , letters from people against his parole and alot of other interesting stuff.
     Anyway, I dont want to go on too long here. I recognized the name Branscomb from my research.
Write back if you have any interest!!
Jill Kane

I replied:

     I’m very glad to hear from you. Frank Asbill was like a will-0-the-wisp around here. His presence was widely known, but nobody really wanted to say much about him. Most of what I’ve heard has been hyperbolic exaggeration, perpetrated mostly by himself. If you’ve studied him you most likely know that he made up a lot of spoofery. I think that Nona James summed him up the most bluntly: “…Mrs. Cook. She thought Frank Asbill told the truth and I knew he was a damned old liar because he killed a friend of mine down in the north end of this town - Mrs. Mayer. He knocked her down the stairs and he went to jail for a couple of years. His uncle settled Covelo. Frank was sure a rowdy young fella. He had it in for my step-dad, Noble because he was half Indian. His father was a white man. Him and another fellow went to Washington and they was in on that Mexican fight…”
     My fondest wish would be to post anything that you would like to place on this blog. Frank Asbill is one of those historical characters that I’ve heard many stories about, mostly conflicting accounts. I have many readers that really like to soak up these kinds of historical/legend stories. I might add, like any large historical event, I've heard many accounts of the killing of Hattie Maud Maher, also many spellings of her name. I can now accept you as the expert on the spelling... Thank-you.
     So, anything that you can add on this blog would be widely read, and I would be more that glad to have them here. With your permission can I post this correspondence? The Frank Asbill story is something that I would really like to pursue.

Jill Kane replied:

Hi Ernie,
     Yes, you have my permission to post.
Frank may have been prone to boasting and exaggerating when it came to talking about himself and of his father and uncle, Pierce and Frank. However, in his manuscript, Last of the West, I believe he made every attempt to give factual information and did so. He knew the history was important and fascinating, and he didnt want to see it lost. As a result, he left behind invaluable historical information that would have otherwise been lost forever. As you probably know, all of Chapter 7 of Genocide and Vendetta was taken from Frank's manuscript, as well as most of the chapter on George E. White and the one on the killing of Jack Littlefield. The najority of the manuscript has been verified and documented as true.
     I don't defend what Frank did in his personal life, but his knowledge of the history of Covelo and its surrounding areas, its people, and the geography of the area was really quite extensive. With as little formal education as he had, which was not much, he set out to write it all down for future generations.
     Frank, I think, had a sort of love-hate relationship as far a the Indians of the area. If you read his manuscript, he shows alot of reverence and respect for their knowledge and care of the land. But on the other hand, his own father was involved in the early massacres of Indians in Round Valley. Not alot of people know that Pierce's own grandmother was a full blooded Cherokee, so Frank had Indian blood. Johnny Asbill, Frank's first cousin, was half Wailaki Indian and Frank looked up to Johnny. I know Frank grew up with and played with many kids who had white fathers and Indian mothers.
    The Asbills were a strange breed. Even my own father, who grew up in the city, had many of their traits, I believe, He called Mexicans Greasors, and had a derogatory name for just about every race. But if he met someone he liked, it didnt matter what race they were...he liked them. I have a feeling Frank may have been that way.
Jill Kane

Hi again Ernie,
     I just want to clarify that I dont agree with the way Frank spoke about the Indians in his manuscript. He was very derogatory about them most of the time. I think that came from his father and uncle. I have always been ashamed of the fact that my great-grandfather and his brother took part the murders of hundreds of innocent Indians. It's something I have never quite come to grips with and probably never will.
    I have always had a genuine interest in the Indian history and culture of the area. I know the story of what happened to Johnny Asbill after he got out of prison and it is quite interesting.

I'm just anxiuos to post this now I will add to it in the comments.

Addendum #1 From Spyrock

hi ernie, i would love to have a photo copy of last of the west. maybe you can email it to me or snail it to me. thanks, spy

yeh, i've written a few things about this that disappeared on me. just as well.

trying not to scare her off. would like to know if frank ever talked about black bart, butch cassiday or the sundance kid to his own family. that's about the only part of the stories my family doesn't believe. i think this frank asbil who wrote last of the west was pretty much family with the pattons and the simmerlys and that's where he met maude but she probably doesn't know about that. so i'm interested in that connection.

i found a picture of joe simmerly, john's oldest brother, seated. i don't know if that is john or not standing next to him it certainly could be. fred looks a bit different. then jim patton with lottie simmerly. charlotte [lottie] simmerly was born in 1876 at round valley.

jim patton may have been a brother or relative to milo patton who was married to my great aunt sarah kauble patton. milo and sarah ran a ranch for george white east of alderpoint. it was said that frank asbil stayed with them after his parents got divorced while he was going to school.

there was a richard [kink] patton who was another brother to milo who died being dragged to death by his horse. a picture of him is on the blocksburg history website about the pattons. i think both james and richard worked the patton ranch with their brother.

Jim Patton

Jim Patton and Lottie Simmerly

Joe Simmerly and possibly John?

Addendum #2 from Jill Kane

Here's three photos of my dad. The hunting photo was taken in 1928 on Island Mountain. My dad would have been 16 years old. According to him that was the first and last deer he ever shot. The next one is my dad in his thirties, and then the last one is of me and my dad. He was probably 58 or so...I was eight or nine. Note the resemblance of my dad in this photo to Frank's mugshot and they would have been just about the same age. A definite family resemblence.

Kieth Kane at 16y

Kieth Kane at 30y

Kieth and Jill


Hi Ernie,

These should keep folks busy for awhile. Hope you can post these on the blog. You will see, it wasnt much of a trial. I think everyone will find the affidavits in favor of Franks parole very interesting--I'm sure some of the names will be familiar to you. Sybil Spiken, who submitted an affidavit, was Frank's sister, my dad's aunt. She practically raised my dad. Anyway, I'll give you a chance to soak this stuff up, and hopefully post these. I'll post some comments on the blog a little later


Frank Asbill trial transcripts



Ernie Branscomb said...

This is the kind of history that would be lost by being too judgmental. Few people today understand the pressures that the pioneers struggled under. In our perfect world it is easy to place blame.

Ernie Branscomb said...

If you are able to read these comments, please tell me if the original manuscript of "The Last of the West" is the same as the book that was printed. The reason that I ask is because I was lucky enough to read Frank's original manuscript, but it was long ago. As I recall, much of the overt racism has been taken out.

Ben said...

Uh... Let's see... When the Asbills and the Kelsey party rode into Round Valley, they were attacked by 3000 Indians and killed 40, according to the book. Six men attacked by 3000 Indians. Muzzle loading guns and they killed 40. I don't think so.
At Briceland, in the last Wailaki Roundup, they attacked and chased a band of Indians to Island Mountain and Bell Springs. Let's see, that's about 40 miles. Somehow, I find this unlikely, yet it is accepted history for many folks around here as is the 40 dead in Round Valley.
Early history in Southern Humboldt is kind of mushy. The only literate people who were here were the Army officers.
Frank Asbill's family history is really wonderful and he does a great job of telling what it was like in Round Valley back in the beginning (the white beginning). It's great to hear from the family.

spyrock said...

jill, its really great to hear your stories. franks credibility is really important to my family as they rely on his stories. of course, he had to rely on his uncle and father's version of what happened before he was born. but cortez subdued the aztecs and montezuma with very few men because they thought he was quetzacautal. that's also accepted history.

spyrock said...

i would love to read last of the west if you can recommend a source. thanks, spy

Ernie Branscomb said...

I know that you are a student of the north coast history, like many students you look for the truth.

I'm not a historian, but I like hearing the stories. No matter how fantastic the story, I know that there is truth in it. After hearing many stories a person can picture in their mind what must have actually happened.

Also, I know that the old-timers had a penchant for exaggeration. I inherited that trait, but I try to use exaggerations that are obviously for emphasis only and not to turn away from the truth. For instance we accept that "It was raining cats and dogs" is not to be accepted as truth, but simply for emphasis.

We live in a P.C. and literal age, it is hard to understand what the old-timers were like, but I am lucky to be old enough to have met more than just a few of the old folks... And heard their stories. They aren't lies, they are truth, in their way of telling it. We just need to put them together in a modern P.C. context.

olmanriver said...

Great to hear from one of Frank's kin. Your family archive sounds really interesting, particularly the map. Are they dates on the map, and locations of ranches and cabins?

His book is such a valuable resource, that Carranco and Beard used so much of it speaks loudly to me. And as Ernie and Ben noted, there is a lot of fictionalizing mixed in, particularly in the early going. His account of the naming of Bell Springs falls in this category, as does his time frame for the attack on the widow Bowman.

Never-the-less, it is a remarkable narrative that has added greatly to our local knowledge of the 1800's, especially the cattle war period.

Thanks for checking in Jill, I am sure you made Ernie's week!

Ernie Branscomb said...

A story that I heard long ago from the son-in-law of the person that owned the hotel that Maude was killed in was, that Frank didn't like the dinner that she had cooked, they got into an arguement, Frank hit her with a frying pan. He packed her down the stairs. When he called for help, he claimed that she fell down the stairs.

Hopefully Jill can tell us what really happened.

Ernie Branscomb said...

I just got an email from Jill, she will send us the documents when she gets through being very busy.

Phew... I thought we scared her off with our boldness. She has no idea how much this stuff means to some of us.

Spyrock, I'm working on getting you a photo copy of "Last Of The West". Email me again, I've lost your mailing information.

spyrock said...

thanks ernie, being able to read last of the west would be great. there are parts of genocide and vendetta and another article i have come across written by someone from north carolina who i am remotely related to through great aunt kate, fred sr. simmerly's wife, about george white and wylackie john and the controversial events that happened, so a third version like last of the west would be like seeing it in 3d.

spyrock said...

thanks jill for posting the info about the trial. i'm about the only person on my side of the family that knew this happened at all thanks to old man river who sent me a 6 page double spaced typed letter about it close to a year ago. ruth simmerly may have known maude. she is up in oregon at a rest home way over 90. frankly i like the connection with frank and the history he wrote down while he was in jail. he and maude lived together for 8 years which is a very long time to be in a relationship these days. so her death contributed to this history being recorded and frank may never have written that book otherwise and no one would have a clue what happened back near round valley in those days. which is what a lot of us here on this blog want to know.
the lease signing doesn't say much for the credibility of the owners of the hotel whose version of what happened was earlier related by ernie and is in the article and basically convicted frank. the truth will never be known, but the history is there for generations to enjoy and wonder about.

Ernie Branscomb said...

According to Ethyl Simmerly, Maude had already been mortally wounded when she signed the lease. Those old-timers were certainly a treacherous lot.

I knew Dr. E.L.Morse, and Ernie wood, two of the witnesses. They were old men when I was a kid.

According to the person that told me what happened Maude was hit with a frying pan. He said that there was all kinds of made up stories about what happened to her. They said that she fell down the stairs, was injured in an automobile accident, and was beaten with a cane. Apparently the cane story stuck.

Ben said...

Ernie.... Blogger lost my last brilliant post and now that I'm not so steamed up, I'll try again.
I have two versions of "The Last of the West (TLOTW hereafter). One is a copy of the manuscript at Humboldt State. It is annotated by a HSU history professor who traveled around talking to relative and local folks. One Asbill nephew (as I recall) denied that the sale of the Indian girls ever happened, however, in Round Valley there is a "sweet bean Jack" story. A woman from Alderpoint who was a friend of Clowie Wood said that she had never heard that Clowie was lassoed.
The other is a version published privately by an Oregon woman named Argle Shawley. Ms. Shawley did a considerable amount of editing yet the book retains its rather raw quality. Interestingly, Shawley's version includes Asbill's memories of school days in Peanut and the Pattons.
I made up my mind to read it again as it has been many years. I'm to about page 20 (300+ pages) and it's a bit like a prolonged visit to the dentist but I will persevere.

charlie two crows said...

The story of Frank Asbill's trial was told to me by Everett Havemann. His family owned the Red Star Laundry. Everett told me Frank shouldn't have gone to prison. Everrett told me old man Zanoni beat a kid to death with a stove poker in the Mazzeppa House and the Russ's got him off. And if anybody was guilty! It Was Zanoni not frank. These two stories were also told by Dale Kirtley's mom that worked at the Ferndale Museum. Everett knew where a lot of bodies were. Everett told me these stories in 71 he was 90.

olmanriver said...

In Western Folklore, Vol. 8, No. 3 (Jul., 1949), pp. 252-255, Frank wrote an article called Place Naming in Wailaki Country.
He starts with the story of the naming of Eden county by his father, uncle and Jim Neafus, and then retells the revenge attack on the Wailakis near Briceland.
In this account he has the Sprowell brothers getting killed in the mid-1860's, and tells his version of the naming of Bell Springs. We know today that these are distorted stories.
I think he is to be read as a "re-versionist folklorist"-- how's that for a new term. His geographical wanderings and stories make for a good read, and he certainly is a role model for bullshistorians.

I have a Native friend whose grandmother used to cook at the ranch-house for these "good ol'boys". She said that they were very considerate and caring of her grandmother... not the stereotypical behavior one might expect.

Thanks Jill, if you want a copy of this article, I can email it to Ernie who can forward it to you. Let me know.

Ben said...

Well, I'm up tp page 162 and having a good time with Frank's description of buckaroo life and the Pitt White ranch stories, Black Bart etc. It was a slow start but I'm having fun now.

Robin Shelley said...

I had to smile a little bit while reading the transcript of the sentencing hearing when the judge asked Frank if he had ever been on charity & Frank replied that he had never been on charity... yet.

Ernie Branscomb said...

Two Crows
That's the first time that I've heard that it might have been somebody else that killed Maud, but it only proves what I say about there being at least five versions of every Eel Valley story. This one make that fifth.

Have you heard any other versions of how Bell Springs and Pipe Creek got there names?


I wondered about the questions that the judge asked Frank. I couldn't figure out what bearing that they might have on anything. It reminded me of a cat playing with a mouse. But, I've been steeped in the local culture of privacy and secrecy so long, where any personal question is viewed with suspicion, that I've become jaded.

omr said...

Enie- there are two other versions of the naming of Bell Springs, according to the Drewrys, as I recall. I will type them up later from home, rather than create a fourth version.
In my opinion, the most credible and earliest version comes from Joseph Tracy who kept passing by the area during his early 1859 road viewing expeditions with Robert White.

omr said...

sorry Ernie, jeez.
I just noticed my mispelling of your name, nuther geezer moment.

Ernie Branscomb said...

That's funny, I didn't notice. Geezer moment???

olmanriver said...

Yes, I had a geezer moment, they have been coming on more and more, somehow linked to the quantity of nose hairs turning white. I have not figured it out yet, but I know that there is a direct association.

Back to less serious matters...I was thinkin' about Frank last night, and what a snooty historian I probly sound like here. The fact that he could "pinpoint" the local battle fought after the Sprouls were wounded by Indians to the middle 1860's at all is pretty good. I realized that he didn't have the advantage of access to newspaper archives for fact checking like we do now.
I have read another account from a woman who lived further north who had a very pro-white perspective on the "War on the Indians" period. In her narrative, the Sproul brothers fed the local Indians and they turned on the brothers killing them. So even though the Humboldt Times said a few weeks after the attack that the boys were recovering just fine, the story that they died might have been circulated by a fearful white population at that time.
In a minor historical footnote, one of the Sproul brothers borrowed a pistol from her family to go look for the Indian boys who shot up the two men visiting John Briceland at his home in the Mattole.

Anonymous said...

Hi Ernie,

Just wanted to check in and let you know I have been without internet service for the last 3 days due to having to switch to a new provider. I am sending this email from the local library using their wireless. Let everyone on the blog know they haven't scared me off:) My new service is supposed to be turned on by Wednesday. I also hope to have dug out the manuscript by then. Its still packed in a box somewhere in my garage. Anyway, please ask everyone to be patient for a bit longer I actually did try to post to the blog a couple of times, wrote quite a bit actually, and then got an error message when I tried to post the comment as anonymous, so lost everything I wrote. But I'll give it another try as soon as my internet is up and running. Next time I'll be sure to save my comments to a Word doc before trying to post. I did see you were able to put up the court transcipts and photos so that is good. There are some interesting questions and comments that I am anxious to respond to.


Ernie Branscomb said...

Always work in a word processor. When a blog eats your work it doesn’t give it back. Beginning bloggers always have trouble. If you have a back-up copy you can always try again. Even us old pros lose something every now and then… But you already figured that out.

Looking forward to your comments.

C2crows said...

Ernie and friends, I need help with a story told to me that happened in the Mattole valley during Franks time, but he had nothing to do with this story. Everett Havemann told me that Indians in the upper mattole valley were exposed to small pox kill them off. I was told that Mr.White hired some of his outlaws to perform this terrible feet. This would be one of the first forms of germaside. I won't go into the grim details. But if someone doughts the story, I can go into great detail. OMR do you have info on this story?

olmanriver said...

Ch2Crow-- I would love to talk about this, can we talk directly via email. Ernie has mine, if you give him permission to share, he can connect us.

Ernie, we will cc you with our conversation so you don't miss out on the good stuff. Folks don't know how many fun forwards you have sent me offblog that I get to pursue and I don't want you to miss out on the fun).

Ernie Branscomb said...

Charlie and OMR
Yes indeed Indians were given blankets infected with smallpox... On purpose! It is a sad day in our history.
I hadn't heard about the Matole Valley, but in Covelo there are many stories of infected blankets. I believe that there is some pretty solid evidence that they were purposefully infected. Strychnine was also used widely. The mid 1800’s were brutal.

Charlie, Email me at

Thank-you for leaving me in the loop. I won't print anything without permission.


Ernie Branscomb said...


It's okay to talk to Olmanriver without including me, but I'm really interested in learning history myself. I'm especially interested in the stories that people have heard. I've learned far more from the "bullshistory" than I have the "only the facts, ma'am" approach. You can glean more of the feeling of what happened when you are able to put all of the legendary stuff together. Even If I don’t believe what I hear, I’m often able to figure out “where the bodies are buried“ .(A term that I’m sure that you are familiar with) There is no way I’m ever going to accuse anyone of lying when they are only passing on what they have heard or simply asking for information. Also, I never print information without permission. Most people don’t want to be accused of “spreading lies” so they only tell their stories at family reunions and the like. All of us here on the blog like hearing these stories, and there are many people that come out of the woodwork to answer questions. So unless it is to personal, or embarrassing, or slanderous. It’s best to ask question here.

(p.s.) I exchanged e-dresses with River and Crows

olmanriver said...

Thanks you two.
Charlie that's a new story to me. There is some oral history linking Theodore Aldrich of Squaw Creek notoriety using strychnine in Indian food supplies in the upper Mattole.

C2crows said...

Ernie and OMR, Glad you liked the story. Ernie you can print the story. Maybe there is someone that has hidden clues to this and many more stories. I want you to know I'm not trying to play the indian card. This story was told to me 40 years ago.

Ernie Branscomb said...

This is the story that Two Crows is talking about. From Two Crows:

This story was told to me by Everett Havemann from his father the owners of Red Star laundry. I was told the settlers in mattole valley in mid 1800's. Mr. White the cattle man had an army of out laws. He wanted the Indians and the settlers to leave. This took place in a time before the indians were rounded up and taken to covelo. Whites men found a body on the beach near where ocean house is now. This person had died of pox. Maybe a slovic pocket schooner threw them overboard. The men dragged the body up into a known indian water supply. All of them died but four were rounded up and sent to covelo he didn't know if they were infected. After this everett said a chief from the table bluff tribe attacked the seTtlers in mattole valley. I can't remember the chief's name. Everett would never do a video history for humboldt state. He told me over a thousand stories. And I couldn't take notes. After his family sold the Laundry, He worked for the Humboldt Foundry as a pattern maker. He visited every saw mill in the county to make spare parts. He knew everyone.

olmanriver said...

There are a lot of untold stories and I love it when new ones come forward from this time period. I appreciate every addition to the old lore.
Ernie has quite a local history archive going here which is quite a service actually. Specific topics are easy to find on google search, families and researchers find their way here.

All thanks to Ernie.

And now Asbill Thanks so much Jill (and Spy)!

Ernie Branscomb said...

Thanks OMR
As you know, I've heard so many stories about "the good old days" that differ so widely from the truth, that I'm skeptical about anything that I hear. I also know that often the “law” was not all that fair, nor precise. If they heard a good story, they would rule on the superficial evidence just to put things behind them. The old “A-crime-was-commited, someone’s-in-jail” story. Sometimes they actually got the right criminal.

My mind is always open for new stories, sometimes they make more sense that the records. To me a “Hole in the skull above the ear” isn’t consistent with a caning. It might be consistent with the handle of a frying pan, or Two Crow’s other man with a stove poker. But Hey, that’s just me.

spyrock said...

i found out that jim patton was milo's half brother. there is an picture of james and milo when they much older on the blocksburg history blog.
me finding this stuff seems really non-local if you know what i mean and you probably don't. something to do with quantum physics and my dna.

jimdrewery11 said...

Hello Ernie,

Nice work here. I'm a grad student working on my MA in History. I'm interested in doing my thesis on the enslavement of Native Americans and a classmate suggested I read "The Last in the West" by Frank Asbill and I ran across your blog while searching for that. I sent you an e-mail about this, any help would be greatly appreciated.

Jim Drewery
Moberly, Mo.

jimdrewery11 said...

Concerning the infected blankets; this was done in many places in the country to a number of tribes. The practice goes back at least to the siege of Ft. Pitt in 1763.

Jim Drewery

Cindy Dy said...

It's enjoyable to learn more and more from your blog. Thanks for sharing.